Diseases Associated with Gastroenterology
Diseases Associated with Gastroenterology. Peptic ulcer is a very widespread chronic disease in which defects and ulcers form in the stomach and/or duodenum of a person. The disease is characterized by a chronic course and seasonality: the disease undermines the health of its owner for years, periods of exacerbation give way to deceptive calm. Most often, peptic ulcer exacerbations occur in the so-called off-season periods – spring – autumn.
Although the etiology of peptic ulcer remains a cause for discussion until now, most top gastroenterologist in Los Angeles agree that the onset of ulcers contributes to:
- the presence of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, pancreatitis)
- long-term use of drugs that have ulcer-forming properties (acetylsalicylic acid, hormonal drugs, etc.)
- alcohol abuse and smoking
- genetic predisposition
Gastritis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane (internal) of the wall of the stomach. The disease can be acute – first occurring with severe symptoms, and chronic – attacks are not repeated very often, but regularly. A gastroenterologist makes a diagnosis of gastritis after examining and conducting a number of studies: esophagogastroduodenoscopy, X-ray examination of the stomach. In chronic gastritis, a study of gastric secretion and a biopsy of the gastric mucosa are performed.
Causes of gastritis:
- Helicobacter pylori
- Improper or irregular nutrition (eating spicy, hot and rough foods, eating dry food)
- Alcohol abuse
- Long-term use of a number of drugs (antibiotics, hormones, etc.)
- Intestinal infections
- Diseases of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas
- Chronic infections in the oral cavity and pharynx
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas, manifested by pain in the upper abdomen, an increase in the level of enzymes in the blood and urine, and a violation of the digestion of food. In acute pancreatitis, clinical and histological changes in the gland tissue completely disappear after the termination of the etiological factor. In contrast, in chronic pancreatitis, even after the cessation of the etiological factor, these changes are saved. With pancreatitis, the secretion of digestive juices is impaired, which leads to digestion, when the digestive juices do not affect the food, but the pancreatic tissue. This leads to inflammation, which, without appropriate treatment, contributes to the replacement of normal tissue with scar tissue.
The pancreas has two main functions:
- The production of enzymes that are necessary for the digestion of food
- The production of insulin, due to a lack of which can develop diabetes mellitus.
A number of factors contribute to the onset of the disease:
- alcohol abuse (alcoholism)
- gallbladder disease (cholelithiasis, cholecystitis)
- duodenal diseases
- infections (viral hepatitis B, C, mumps, etc.)
- metabolic disease
- hormonal disorders
- vascular disease
- thyroid disease
- taking certain medications
- operational injuries
Cholecystitis is an inflammatory disease of the gallbladder caused by bacteria, viruses or parasitic nature. Cholecystitis is considered one of the most common diseases of the digestive system, which affects women more often. As a rule, the disease develops against the background of gallstone disease.
Predisposing factors include:
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
- the presence of parasites (giardia, roundworm)
- gallbladder and liver injuries
- the presence of foci of chronic infection
- immune status disorders
- frequent constipation
- irregular nutrition
- frequent overeating
- sedentary lifestyle
Gallstone disease – a disease in which the formation of calculi in the gallbladder occurs and which manifests itself in the form of biliary colic. Gallstone disease should be distinguished from stone carriage (the presence of bile stones in the bladder is not accompanied by clinical symptoms). As a rule, in such cases, the presence of stones is detected by chance during an ultrasound scan or during surgery for another reason.
Factors that contribute to the onset and development of the disease include:
- genetic predisposition
- ileum diseases
- taking a number of drugs (estrogens, fibrates, etc.)
- excessive consumption of fatty foods high in cholesterol, flour products, sugar
In most cases, the presence of calculi in the gallbladder does not cause any unpleasant sensations in patients; they belong to the group of stone carriers. But in some patients, the disease manifests itself in the form of biliary colic.
Patients also complain of:
- pain in the right hypochondrium
- intolerance to fatty foods
- bitterness in the mouth