Nutritional Importance of Lipids
Nutritional Importance of Lipids. Triacylglycerols (fats and oils) are the concentrated dietary source of fuel, contributing 15-50 you look after the body energy requirements. Phospholipids and cholesterol (from animal sources) also are important in nutrition.
MAJOR NUTRITIONAL FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS:
Dietary lipids have two major nutritive functions.
- Supply triacylglycerols that normally constitute about 90 you look after dietary lipids which may be a concentrated source of fuel to the body.
- Provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K).
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS:
The unsaturated fatty acids in which the body can’t be synthesized and, therefore, must be consumed within the diet are mentioned as Essential Fatty Acids (EFA).
The fatty acids- linoleic and omega-6 fatty acid can’t be synthesized from linolic acid in some animal species, including man. However, the conversion efficiency of linolic acid to arachidonic acid isn’t clearly known in man. And for this reason, some nutritionists recommend that it’s better to incorporate some amount of Arachidonic Acid also within the diet.
FUNCTIONS OF EFA:
- Essential fatty acids are the structural components of biological membranes.
- Participate in the transport and Utilization of Cholesterol.
- Prevent fat accumulation within the liver.
- Required for the synthesis of prostaglandins.
- Maintain proper growth and reproduction of the organisms.
DEFICIENCY OF EFA:
Essential carboxylic acid deficiency is related to several complications.
- Impairment in growth and reproduction.
- Increased BMR.
- High turnover of phospholipids.
The EFA deficiency in humans is characterized by scaly dermatitis on the posterior and lateral parts of limbs and buttocks. This condition is mentioned as “Phrynoderma or Toad skin”. Poor wound healing and hair loss is additionally observed in EFA deficiency.
EFA CONTENT OF FOODS:
The essential fatty acids, more frequently called Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA), are predominantly present in vegetable oils and fish oils. The rich vegetable sources include sunflower-seed oil, cottonseed oil, corn oil, soya bean oil, etc. The fat of animal origin (exception: fish), contains less PUFA e.g. butter, fat of meat, pork, and chicken.
DIETARY INTAKE OF EFA:
Nutritionists recommend that a minimum of half-hour of the dietary fat should contain PUFA. A very high intake of PUFA (i.e. totally replacing saturated fatty acids) might not be advisable. this is often thanks to the very fact that excess PUFA, unless amid antioxidants (vitamin E, carotenes), is believed to be injurious to the cells thanks to the overproduction of free radicals.
CHOLESTEROL IN NUTRITION:
It is proved definitely that elevated serum cholesterol (>250 mg/dl) increases the danger of Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Diseases. But the role of dietary cholesterol during this regard remains controversial. Cholesterol synthesis continuously occurs within the body which is under a feedback regulation.
Some nutritionists believe that dietary cholesterol might not have much influence on the body levels while others recommend avoiding the consumption of cholesterol-rich foods (e.g. egg yolk) for far better health. It’s an accepted incontrovertible fact that reduction in serum cholesterol levels lowers the danger of heart diseases.
REQUIREMENT OF DIETARY FAT:
Consumption of dietary fats and oils is taken into account in terms of their contribution to the energy needs of the body. There’s a good variation in fat intake. It’s much higher (up to 50 you look after daily calories) in affluent societies compared to the poorer sections of the people (about V-J Day of calories). The recommended fat intake is around 20-30 you look after the daily calorie requirement, containing about 50 you look after PUFA.
Useful Information about Nutritional Importance of lipids and Essential Fatty Acids in Biological system by PCD Pharmaceutical company in Panchkula.